Which Types of PCBs are Best for Different Designs?

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Upverter Expert - Which Types of PCBs are Best for Different Designs

As part of our best practices and information for new designers and hardware startups, we want to give new designers the information they need to choose the right PCB for their next project. Any PCB is intended to provide a physical support for an electronic system and its components. The complexity of different types of PCBs varies widely, depending on the function of different circuits. If you’re designing a PCB for the first time, we’ll show you the different types of PCBs that will hopefully provide inspiration for your next project.

Rigid PCBs

As the name states, these boards have a rigid substrate which prevents bending or warping. These are usually made of solid, rigid material like fiberglass weaves, but more demanding industrial or automotive applications may require ceramic or metal core substrates. With the number of layers ranging from one to more than ten, they are the most common type of PCBs on the market.

Single-sided PCB

Just like its name suggests, a single-sided PCB consists of a single layer of conductors and components. There is usually a solder mask over the copper layer, and silk-screen can be used to mark the positions of different components. Despite the low-cost, the utility of these boards is limited because of the design complexity limitation. Due to only one surface available for connections the area of the board can grow very fast to accommodate all the components and connections.

Layers in a single-sided PCBSingle-sided PCB

Double-sided PCB

Double-sided PCBs are similar to single-sided except the conducting layer is on both sides of the substrate. Now the connections can run on both sides of the PCB, hence it occupies a smaller area or can have more complex circuits. The connection between top and bottom layer is made using plated holes called “vias”. These boards are used for moderately complex circuits. It is generally not a good idea to try and design high-speed or high-frequency PCBs on double-sided boards as grounding and power distribution can be a real challenge, especially as the number of components increases.

double_sidedLayers in a double-sided PCB

Multilayer PCB

Multilayer PCBs have several layers of copper separated by insulating laminate materials. Connections between layers are also made using vias. Typical multilayer boards start with four layers, and the layer count grows for more complex (and costly) boards. The extra planes can be used for routing, power distribution, and grounding planes, which helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic interference (EMI). A four-layer board is usually a good place to start for a moderately complex board that will run at high speed (faster than TTL logic) and/or high frequency (usually hundreds of MHz or higher).

Layer stack in a multi-layer PCBLayer stack in a multi-layer PCB

Flexible PCBs

Rigid-Flex PCB

Rigid-Flex PCBs are a middle ground between one of the previous types of PCBs and a flex PCB (see below). These boards are best used in applications where a board requires precise molding to its enclosure or when different sections of a board need to move with the enclosure. These boards are also useful in small spaces where a standard connector will not fit in the enclosure. These boards can be found in pacemakers, digital cameras, and cell phones.

Layer stack in a multi-layer PCBRigid-Flex PCB from RayPCB

Flex PCB

These boards are not really boards; they are fully flexible PCBs that can be molded into nearly any shape without affecting circuits present on different layers. The substrate is usually made from polyimide with copper or other malleable metal used for conductors. These boards are more expensive than the other types of PCBs due to the additional fabrication complexity.

Rigid-Flex PCBFlexible PCB

Which Type of PCB is Best for Your Design?

The answer to this question really depends on the application in which your board will be used, your production budget, and the level of complexity of your circuits. One rule of thumb that will aid in your decision is this: if your new design works properly on a breadboard, you can expect your circuits to work as designed no matter how you layout your PCB.

For designs that run at high speeds and or frequencies, single-layer or double-sided boards are typically unsuitable, and you’ll want to start with a four-layer PCB. Here are some other points to consider for different types of PCBs in certain applications:

  • PCB for medical devices have severe area constraints therefore require dense routing with compact footprint. Multilayer PCBs are therefore quite common in medical and other advanced applications.
  • Industrial applications usually have high current requirements than in other applications. PCBs used in these cases have a thicker copper layers compared to normal PCBs.
  • Automotive and aerospace PCBs must withstand strong mechanical vibrations, hence flexible PCBs can be used for such cases.

No matter which types of PCBs you want to design, Upverter® provides the schematic design and PCB layout tools you need to design boards from start to finish in a browser-based interface. If you are preparing a complex PCB with multiple layers, Upverter gives an easy EDA teamwork platform for a live multi-user collaboration and real-time design rule check (DRC) features.

You can sign up for free and get access to the best browser-based PCB editor, schematic editor, and component database. Visit Upverter today to learn more.

A Guide to Arduino Shield Design

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Upverter Expert - A Guide to Arduino Shield Design

You probably have a great idea that you tested using your Arduino, breadboard, and what looks like a bird’s nest of connectors, and it works great. Congratulations! If only a couple of ICs and additional circuitry could be added to your Arduino to make it look like a finished product. We have two choices here. First, you could make a custom board that might be more organized, but will require some time to design. You’ll also have to replicate Arduino’s functionality in your custom board, or you’ll have to clone an Arduino board.

Arduino shield design by stacking multiple boards

Arduino shield design with expandable memory and an LCD display 

The other option is to take all the additional components and make an Arduino shield. If you are lucky, you might be able to find an existing shield that will hold your additional components. If you’re more adventurous, you can create your own shield board that plugs directly into an Arduino module. Here’s what you need to consider in Arduino shield design and how to create a custom shield for your new product.

What is Arduino Shield Design?

Arduino shields are small circuit boards that sit on top of existing Arduino boards and contain additional components to boost the capabilities of the system. There are a number of capabilities you can add to an existing Arduino, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, motor control, a camera, or other features. Arduino shields provide some important advantages:

  • Stackable. The layout of a shield board will be compatible with a basic Arduino board, which means they can be plugged in straight away. Signals are sent from the GPIO pins or other MCU interface, and multiple shields can be stacked together to form a complex system.
  • Inexpensive. Shields are relatively inexpensive to buy or design. For a small manufacturing batch, you’ll find that they are cheaper compared to custom PCB.
  • Extensible. If you use a through-hole shield, you can add more components to the board or rework it as needed. Note that this is not generally the case with a custom shield, which is normally fabricated for a specific set of functions.

Arduino shields have the same form factor as that of a standard Arduino board. Power and ground pins are located on one eight pin header, the analog pins are placed on a six-pin header, and the digital pins are placed on the opposite side with an eight-pin and ten-pin header. An example footprint for an Arduino Uno shield is shown below.

Arduino shield design for an Arduino Uno
Typical shield form factor for an Arduino Uno

Some Arduino shields are designed to use every pin, while some shields leave open pins. Shields generally communicate using SPI, I2C, or serial communication, and some use interrupts or analog inputs. If you’re buying a premade shield, you’ll find that not all of these modules are extensible. Some shields include an array of plated holes for soldering through-hole components, while others are designed for a very particular application and are not expandable. Take a look at Adafruit for some good examples.

Types of Arduino shields

There are hundreds of Arduino shields on the market these days, and going through each will turn this article into a lecture. Here are a couple interesting shields that might inspire your next design.

Connecting to the world

Arduino WiFi or Ethernet shield. As the name says, this allows your Arduino to connect to the internet through Ethernet or via WiFi. Arduino has retired the WiFi shield, but similar shields can be found from other suppliers or from tutorial websites. You can also build your own shield that provides both capabilities.

GPS shield. You can easily add GPS capabilities to an Arduino with a simple chip antenna. You could even clone an open-source GPS module and easily adapt it as an Arduino shield.

Music and Sound

MP3 player shield. You can turn your Arduino into an MP3 player by adding some speakers, a microSD card, and a headphone jack.

Music instrument shield, You can turn your Arduino into different digital instruments. You can generate an analog signal with a DAC on the shield board, and you can use other components to modulate this signal. You can also use UART to control other devices via MIDI.

Display and Touchscreen

LCD display or touchscreen shield. You can easily add a 16×2 character LCD display with controllable backlighting to your project. You can use two I2C pins on the Arduino board, which leaves plenty of pins left over for interfacing with other devices. If you want to include a touchscreen, an Arduino board can provide sufficient power for place a small touch screen with decent resolution (240×320 is typical). You can also add a microSD card for storing images and videos.

Automation

Relay shield. A relay shield allows you to bring automation to our home appliances. This type of board can contain multiple relay switches that can be individually configured as normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC).

Motor shield. The Adafruit link shown above includes a great example for a motor shield. If you ever want to build a robot (who doesn’t!), you can use the digital output to power a DC motor. You can also use the PWM output from the MCU to control a stepper motor.

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Arduino shield design for a stepper motor control board.

Things to Consider in Arduino Shield Design

While there are plenty of shields you can create for a new product, there are some important points to consider when designing your own Arduino shield.

  • Pin-out. The pin-out on your shield should match the pin-out on the MCU board. Pay attention to the datasheet for your Arduino model when designing your shield.
  • Current rating. When powered with an external supply, the total current is limited from 500 mA to 1 A, depending on the exact model. Components connected on the shield board and wired to the power/ground pins will increase the total current used by the device.
  • Supply voltage. Some Arduino boards use 3.3 V while others use 5 V. The components you add to your shield should be compatible with the supply voltage used with the MCU board.
  • Through-hole vs. SMD components. Some shields come with an array of holes for through-hole components alongside some other functionality that is built into the board. You can certainly use these premade boards for your shield, but you will be limited to through-hole components. If you prefer SMD components, then you will be better off designing your own shield.

Design for Wireless Communication

If you add a Bluetooth, WiFi, GPS, or other wireless module to a custom shield as a chip antenna, you’ll likely need to include a ground plane in your shield board. Be sure to pay attention to your antenna manufacturer’s guidelines when working with your chip antenna. Unless your shield is much larger than your MCU board, your RF traces are unlikely to act like transmission lines, but you should still pay attention to impedance matching rules for your antenna.

Alternatively, you can use copper pour on your shield board to create your own antenna, such as an inverted-F antenna. This will provide a compact footprint compared to a larger rubber ducky antenna.

Arduino Shield Design in Upverter

Upverter® provides users with a simple yet powerful browser-based platform for designing boards from start to finish. You can easily pick from a vast range of existing open-source hardware projects to get started, or you can import Arduino shield templates from Eagle libraries available from Sparkfun or Adafruit. 

You can sign up for free and get access to the best browser-based PCB editor, schematic editor, and component database. Visit Upverter today to learn more.

 

Getting Started with Embedded Systems Projects

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Upverter Expert Getting Started with Embedded Systems Projects.jpgCoding is just one important part of embedded systems design

Have you ever started an embedded systems project? If the answer to this question is no, just know that an embedded systems project is easy to start but difficult to master. You’ll need to become something of a coder as well as a hardware developer, and you may need to learn a new programming language in the process. If you already have programming experience, then you’ve got a head start over other engineers. Otherwise, there are plenty of open source hardware and software packages you can use to get started with building and programming your next embedded systems projects.

What Are Embedded Systems?

There is no strict definition of an embedded system. In the simplest sense, an embedded system is any electronic system that includes some components that provide computing capabilities. These computing capabilities could be reprogrammable, depending on the processing and memory components used in a particular system. These systems often appear as part of a larger electromechanical system or other complicated product. They also contain some kind of mechanism to receive user input or interface with another electronic, whether it is a set of buttons, a touch screen interface, or a wireless connection.

If you’re questioning whether you should build your next project as an embedded system, think about this: does the device need to process some kind of input from the external environment or another device, and does the device then need to make some kind of logical decision based upon that input? If the answer is yes, then you’ve got an embedded system on your hands.

You can find an extensive range of embedded systems, and you can even get some good ideas for your next project, by looking throughout your home. From appliances like air conditioners and microwaves to smartphones and smartwatches, you are probably using many embedded systems at the moment. With IoT devices set to become more popular in consumer electronics, industry, and other areas, many more products will function as embedded systems.

Processing Capabilities

Your processor, whether it’s an MCU or other component, will form the cornerstone of your embedded systems project. It also determines how many external components your device can incorporate, as well as the communication protocol your system will use to send or acquire data from other devices. Different processors provide different processing speed, although they carry different costs and will consume different amounts of board space.

Microcontrollers are an excellent choice for providing processing power in applications that don’t require extremely high speed and variable bit depth. Affordable microcontroller ICs provide bit depths ranging from 8 to 32 bits, and are available in speeds reaching from 10’s to 100’s of MHz. The footprints vary as well; many microcontroller come in DIP packages, while more powerful microcontrollers will be available in SMD/SMT packages.

shutterstock_707972428This microcontroller board can provide the backbone for a simple embedded system

Different microcontrollers support different programming languages, although microcontrollers typically use some higher-level programming language like Java or C/C++ in an integrated development environment (IDE). As an example, Arduino’s IDE is its own variant of C/C++. Before selecting a microcontroller, check the manufacturer’s IDE to ensure that you are familiar with the language. Microcontrollers are typically programmed in higher-level languages such as C++ or Java.

Embedded systems can be designed with an FPGA, and their reprogrammable nature makes them more flexible than most microcontrollers. The costs for a single FPGA can reach hundreds of dollars, and FPGAs tend to consume more power than typical microcontrollers. This makes them unsuitable in devices where power consumption is an issue.

If your device requires access to steady power, must run at high speed, requires hundreds of I/Os for data processing, and/or needs to be periodically reprogrammed, then a microcontroller is the better choice for your application. There are a number of specialized languages for programming FPGAs, with Verilog being the oldest. C/C++/System C is one example of a simpler tool for programming an FPGA, although you’ll need to use the manufacturer’s core generator tools to translate your code to the hardware level.

These limitations in programming languages cause FPGAs to be less accessible to designers who do not have experience with these embedded languages. For these reasons, many designers will find microcontrollers much easier to use for embedded systems projects compared to FPGAs and other CPLDs.

Building Your PCB and Your Device

Once you do select an appropriate processor for your next device, you’ll need to design a PCB that integrates your processor and your other devices onto a single package. If you are not the type to design a PCB on your own, there are plenty of microcontroller projects that can help you get started with your design. You can take these projects and expand on them, or you can use a popular microcontroller platform like Arduino to build your next device. Other, more powerful options are a Raspberry Pi single-board computer, or the even-more-powerful BeagleBone Black. The prices for these products ranges from a few dollars upwards, and your processing power and built-in memory will scale with costs.

Working with a microcontroller board like Arduino limits you to the capabilities that already exist on the board; you won’t have any ability to expand the on-board capabilities unless you open the schematic and layout for your microcontroller board in your PCB design software and modify it manually. If your board will interface with a number of other devices that will run at high speed and/or high frequency, it can be difficult to ensure signal integrity unless you have some PCB design experience. In this case, it is better to include these little extras directly on the board.

If you want your device to connect to other devices wirelessly or through the internet, then you might be better off going with a single board computer, like a Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone. If you are in the business of incorporating these capabilities on your own, you’ll need access to an extensive component database with electrical models, schematic symbols, and PCB footprints.

Once you decide on the basic requirements your device needs, and you have narrowed down the processing unit you will use, there are plenty of directions you can go to expand the capabilities of your embedded system. All this takes the right PCB design software with an extensive set of design tools.

Embedded Systems Projects in Upverter

If you’re looking for a platform to build an embedded system, Upverter provides a massive component library with plenty of FPGA and microcontroller options to choose from. All the important board design, rules verification, and circuit simulator features are available in a browser-based interface. You’ll also be able to collaborate with other designers on your next embedded systems project.

FPGA2The Embedded Micro – Mojo project, built for use in an embedded system with an FPGA

With the browser-based design features in Upverter®, you’ll have access to the PCB design features you need to create embedded systems projects and design PCBs to support these devices. The schematic design and PCB layout tools are designed for taking your design from start to finish and preparing for manufacturing. These standard design features are accessible from anywhere. These features also provide collaboration and rules verification for your next embedded systems project.

You can sign up for free and get access to the best browser-based PCB editor, schematic editor, and component database. Visit Upverter today to learn more.

The Design Guide for Hardware Startups: Getting Started (Part 1)

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Building a hardware - Startup Part1Building a hardware startup is serious business

These days, software companies get all the attention, but it doesn’t have to be that way. The modern miracles we all know and love wouldn’t be possible without PCBs and the businesses that bring them to market. If you’ve got an idea for a great hardware product, then you’ll need to take some important steps before you’re ready to start marketing and selling it to the masses.

Before you start producing prototypes and planning your first major production run, there are some important steps that hardware startups should consider before moving their product into the marketplace. These steps are intended to help get you to the product design phase and maximize your chances of success in your new venture.

Market Validation for Hardware Startups

A cool design rarely sells itself. This means you need to take some time to validate the market for your new idea. Market validation is about much more than just estimating the number of units you can sell per year. It really comes down to weighing the costs involved in producing your products, the costs to market your products, and the revenue you stand to see as a result. The profit you produce from this can then be put right back into growing the business.

In addition to market validation, you’ll need to consider the type of startup you want to build. The range and number of products you plan to create, the links between them, and whether you are marketing to end consumers or other business will determine the best methodology for validating the market for your products. It will also determine your overall product development and growth strategy; this will be discussed in a future article.

Driving Innovation: Demand-push vs. Technology-pull

The drive to innovate a new product can take two forms: technology-push and demand-pull. Regarding the former, new technology allows an entrepreneur to create a product that the market might not know they even need or that is not currently in demand. The latter drive for innovation addresses a real need that is demanded by the market and is currently unsatisfied.

If you can identify a demand-pull innovation, then you have immediate market validation for your idea. Unfortunately, chances are that other companies and entrepreneurs have also identified this opportunity, unless you are targeting a niche market. This means that the first company to successfully create and market a working product will have serious first mover advantage and is likely to see major success. At that point, it is up to you to differentiate your product from that of your competitors and differentiate your product by targeting specific pain points in your market.

In contrast, a technology-push innovation is not always obvious to potential competitors. This also means it may not be so obvious to your potential customers. The problem is that you will spend more time educating customers and convincing them that your product is a better solution to their problems compared to existing products. The market for this type of innovation is more difficult to validate as potential demand for the product is not so obvious.

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Ditch the external oscillator before adding the new MCU

Sales Volume Estimation

Perhaps the most important point in market validation is to estimate potential sales volume and customer acquisition costs. If you are designing a piece of technology that is essentially an upgrade of an existing product on the market, it is easier to estimate the market for your product based on existing sales volume. You can then get an estimate of marketing and advertising costs using search engine data.

Once you have an idea of the potential market size, you’ll have to accept that you can’t satisfy the entire market from day one. You’ll need to set a realistic sales target once you launch your product. A good plan is to target a small segment of the market, normally a few percent. Once you have an idea of the number of potential market size, you can get an idea of your customer acquisition rate. This is where you can use search engine data to estimate your marketing costs for targeting your desired segment of the market.

In order to estimate sales conversions from your advertising efforts, you should devise best-case and worst-case scenarios. If you assume an average 10% conversion rate, then this means that only 1 in 10 visitors to your website will buy your product. If each click in a search engine costs $1, your click-through rate is 1%, and your only marketing strategy is pay-per-click advertising, then you will need to reach 1000 people and sell a single unit for $10 plus manufacturing costs to break even on a single sale. Obviously, you need to take this and your other advertising strategies into account when devising a marketing strategy, as there are plenty of other marketing strategies hardware startups can use to market their new products.

Defining Design Requirements

As you go through the process of market validation, you’ll inevitably get some better ideas of what your market desires and how your product should function. After validating your market and determining the functionality it desires, it’s time to start defining rigorous functional requirements for your new product. These functional requirements should define the capabilities required to produce the desired user experience. Initially, you need to focus on what the product can do, not on how the product is built.

Once the user experience and required capabilities are rigorously defined, you can start defining the technical requirements for your device. This is where you need to start thinking like an engineer; you’ll need to consider how data moves throughout your system, how the system interfaces with the outside world, and how it interfaces with other devices. This will inform the next step in the design process, where you start creating block diagrams and schematics for your device.

shutterstock_382398283
Hierarchical schematics take you closer to your PCB layout

Creating a schematic is the first step in designing a PCB to support your new product. This is where you select the components in your system and start linking them together to produce your desired functionality. This where you need to consider the design software you’ll use to create your product. Working with browser-based software is a cost-effective alternative to other desktop-based design programs as it provides automated backup, version control, and collaboration features within a single platform.

As you venture down the road towards turning your new idea into a prototype and eventually a finished product, you’ll encounter plenty of design and production challenges. With the right design tools, you can take a design from start to finish and overcome these challenges. The browser-based PCB design platform from Upverter® provides all the tools any hardware startup needs to build create their next electronics product and plan their production runs. This online design platform includes all the standard features designers have come to expect in electronics design software. You’ll also have access to an extensive library of electronic components for building your next product.

You can sign up for free and get access to the best browser-based PCB editor, schematic editor, and component database. Visit Upverter today to learn more.

HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensors Power Super Mario Brothers Staircase

HCSR04 Ultrasonic sensors project in Upverter

Following is the Mind Your Steps project, which I am conducting student workshops for at SUIC Digital Communication Design students. The goal of these workshops is to explore the possibility of using technology to augment daily experiences and promote new productive human behaviors in day-to-day life.  

The workshop’s timeline is only 1 week, so things need to move as quickly as possible to meet that deadline. In the first class, all of the five students, who had never been exposed to the subject of physical computing before, were lectured with a lot of case studies and learned the explanation for the technology behind it. Students were then told to brainstorm and pick the location for their projects by the end of the very first day. 

The students came up with two locations. The first one was in front of the mirror in a women’s restroom. Female students noticed that other women were spending too much time in front of the mirror, and that maybe we could make an interactive installation to change that behavior. The second location was a staircase between the 8th and 9th floors of the CAT building (which is located at the university). The staircase seemed to be a better location for everyone to be able to participate in the installation and not be limited by lack of access to the women’s restroom. During the lecture period, students were inspired by the piano stairs in the Odenplan subway in Stockholm Sweden, which was implemented to promote the use of the staircase as opposed to the escalator. This interactive project continues to promote healthy behavior by reducing human traffic for the escalator and making the stairs an entertaining choice.

A screenshot from Super Mario Bros
Super Mario Bros offered a great player experience among many mid-eighties games.

If you can recall any popular mid-eighties platformer game in which players attempt to avoid certain objects and catch other objects, Super Mario Bros is sure to be one of the first games to come to mind. Our goal was to bring this fun experience from video game to reality. Since all of the students were too new to the technology for the project to succeed, I was responsible for the technical part and the students were responsible for the overall aesthetics of the project. The Super Mario Bros graphic on the wall around the staircase, the floor, and an electronics enclosure were created by the students. We chose an 8-bit style graphic to give a retro mood to audiences and remind them of the fun experiences 8-bit games provided in their youth. The content of the graphic had to relate to the context of the place, which is Silpakorn University International College in Bangkok, and it had to be relatable to students of the arts.

Wallpaper beside the college’s staircase
The design of the wallpaper beside the staircase is done by the students.

The picture above is the Super Mario Bros-esque graphic design the students came up with, including a lot of 8-bit pixellated buildings and other environmental features. The strawberry pattern above is the symbol that refers to the arts faculty.

Staircase steps are decorated with rewards and traps
Staircase steps are decorated with rewards and traps that provide feedback when stepped on.

The students chose four Mario-like rewards and traps; bombs and turtle shells as traps, and strawberries and coins as rewards. The audience receives audio feedback when stepping on the symbols.

View of the staircase from the higher floor
View of the staircase from above.

Here is what we ended up with on the first installation day. As you can see, we still had too much free space on the wall which needed to be filled. The banner describing the project also seemed to be tilted a bit, so the students had to come up with a clever way to solve it.

Close up view on some of the electronic equipment in the staircase
You could see an HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensors blending in with the buildings in the wallpaper.

For safety reasons, we hid the wires alongside the staircases so that bypassers wouldn’t trip over them.

Side view of the staircase
Close-up of equipment on staircase.

 

The Hardware

A table with hardware on it
The hardware used includes prototyping boards and loudspeakers.

Here is the prototype I built at home. The whole project required four. Each set included one microcontroller (AVR on the Arduino), one DFPlayer Mini MP3 Player for Arduino, one microSD card, one speaker and two HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensors. For the prototype I chose Arduino Uno for the ease of hooking up the wires to the peripherals. The MP3 module has no problem supporting a 3W speaker, so I used it in the project, but for the prototype I chose a higher watt speaker that required an amplifier module to drive them. The SD card is loaded with the mp3 files which are matched to each symbol. All of the electronics sets are running on 5V, so one 5V 30A power supply should be more than enough to power the project.

Watch the prototype test SUIC stair sweeper here.

Here is how the prototype basically works. The HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensors are set with the appropriate distances to detect when human stepping on the traps or rewards. After the HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor detects any objects in range a sound will play according to the symbol the sensor is paired with. Four different symbols are mapped to four different sounds.

A team member soldering pin headers to an Arduino Nano
Here is an image of the first time soldering. On the right-hand is 3W speaker. After we finish assembly all of the units in the lab. Its time for on-site installation.

Here is the schematic of each unit. The units are powered by a 5V power supply, + for VIN pin and – to GND pin. The schematic of the staircase circuit, built on Fritzing platform, including two HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensors, an Arduino Nano, an SD card reader, and a 3W speaker.

The schematic of the staircase circuit.
The schematic of the staircase circuit.

Here is the schematic of each unit. The unit is powered by a 5V power supply, + for VIN pin and – to GND pin.

Schematic diagram for Mario Stairs project
The schematic of the staircase circuit, built on Fritzing platform, including two HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensors, an Arduino Nano, an SD card reader, and a 3W speaker.
PCB layout for the ultrasonic sensor and audio player board
PCB Layout
Photo of final PCB
Final PCB board ready to be soldered on.

We had to place each box at the exact location we were preparing, because if we misplaced them, the triggered sound would be wrong and we’d need to reopen the enclosure and reinstall the code. The wire length needed to be adjustable due to the measuring error. 

The Ultrasonic required 4 pins to function: Vin, GND, Echo, and Trig. I used two black power wires—each with red and black wires inside to connect the sensor modules to the Arduino microcontroller modules, as you can see in the image.

Final top view of the staircase with Super Mario inspired electronics
Final view of the staircase ready for students in the coming school year!

Here is how the staircase project looked when it was ready to be tested—no obstructive wires in sight. We spent one more day debugging code and rewiring an electronics.

And here is the project in action. We finished the project in the summer, so no students were present at the time. We’ll need to wait until the semester starts again to see whether we’ve achieved our goal or not.

Code

#include "Arduino.h"
#include "SoftwareSerial.h"

//Library that I chose to control mp3 module
#include "DFRobotDFPlayerMini.h"

SoftwareSerial mySoftwareSerial(10, 11);  // RX, TX
DFRobotDFPlayerMini myDFPlayer;

// Two ultrasonic pins setting up
#define trigPin1 9
#define echoPin1 8
#define trigPin2 7
#define echoPin2 6

long duration, distance, distance1, firstSensor, secondSensor;

void setup()
{
  mySoftwareSerial.begin(9600);
  Serial.begin(115200);

  pinMode(trigPin1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(echoPin1, INPUT);
  pinMode(trigPin2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(echoPin2, INPUT);

  Serial.println();
  Serial.println(F("DFRobot DFPlayer Mini Demo"));
  Serial.println(F("Initializing DFPlayer ... (May take 3~5 seconds)"));
 
  if (!myDFPlayer.begin(mySoftwareSerial)) {  //Use softwareSerial to communicate with mp3.
    Serial.println(F("Unable to begin:"));
    Serial.println(F("1.Please recheck the connection!"));
    Serial.println(F("2.Please insert the SD card!"));
    while(true);
  }
  Serial.println(F("DFPlayer Mini online."));

  myDFPlayer.volume(30);  //Set volume value. From 0 to 30

}

void loop() {

  // read distance data from both sensors
  SonarSensor(trigPin1, echoPin1);
  SonarSensor1(trigPin2, echoPin2);
  firstSensor = distance;
  secondSensor = distance1;

  // I prioritize the first ultrasonic first, so the two sounds will not be overlapped
  if (distance < 40 && distance > 10) {
    myDFPlayer.play(1);
    delay(1000);
  } else if (distance1 < 40 && distance1 > 10) {
    myDFPlayer.play(2);
    delay(500);
  }

}

void SonarSensor(int trigPin,int echoPin)
{
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
  delayMicroseconds(2);
  digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);
  delayMicroseconds(10);
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
  duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);
  distance = (duration/2) / 29.1;
}

void SonarSensor1(int trigPin,int echoPin)
{
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
  delayMicroseconds(2);
  digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);
  delayMicroseconds(10);
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
  duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);
  distance1 = (duration/2) / 29.1;
}


Future implementation

There are several ways this project can be implemented in the future. First, we can make question mark boxes like the ones in the Super Mario games in the areas between both floors that require humans to jump or hit them. When we hit the box, something might pop up above the box by a linear motor—or an LED might light up. Second, the symbol on the floor only has sound feedback right now. If we add tactile feedback when we step on the symbol, this will make the project much more fun to play with. 

This workshop is doing an experimental project that serves as a mind opener to students, encouraging them to recognize that technology is not limited to smartphones and the internet, but that technology can be applied to many areas in our life which usually go untouched. 

Salutes to all the kiddos Yong, Nat, Petch, Kim, Kap! 🙂

With so many aspects of our lives run by electronics, PCBs are like the glue that holds modern life together. Do you have an idea for a project? Try Upverter today, or get more inspiration about the types of projects you can do in Upverter. 

By Natthakit Kangsadansenanon

A Guide to Starting a New Project

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I have been an Altium user for more than a decade, and I’ve just signed up with Upverter to work on some new projects for a friend. While the Upverter is new to me, my initial planning process is exactly the same, no matter what the software.

Determining Requirements

The first step of successfully starting a new project is turning your idea (or someone else’s) into a set of requirements, or a specification. You have to do this before you get started on selecting any components or doing anything else. For example, when I’m working on a complex project, this would involve developing a couple of Agile Methodology personas which I can refer back to during each step of the way. For a simpler project however, this could be just a quick Google document which identifies what inputs and outputs the device will have, and perhaps how I want to approach some of what goes on between the input and output. 

Even when working on a fairly simple device, the process of writing this requirements document will likely give you inspiration for scope creep – wait, I mean additional functionality! It’s much easier to deal with the additional functionality when converting the idea into a requirements document than it is to deal with as you’re halfway through the PCB layout. 

If you’re working as a freelancer or developing the project for someone else, this is a really great time to share your ideas with the client, as sharing your ideas shows your interest to the client and may spark even more ideas from the client. This can help give you a better project to tell future clients about, save you a lot of effort later in reworking the design, and potentially result in additional work, and pay, to integrate the new features and functionality you thought up, all whilst impressing the client.

My requirements document will give a brief overview of the concept of the product, which is typically just a paragraph or two detailing the original idea. Then, it will have a section on what the product will do. Following that, each input will get it’s own section, as will each output. Buttons, screens, and other user interface elements count as inputs and outputs, not just the connectors. If the system is battery-powered, the battery requirements will also be listed, such as expected battery runtime, current draw,  and any environmental constraints that might exist. Finally, I will add a section on the form factor and any size constraints. The form factor section will have some rough ideas of how big I want the device to be, if it will have an enclosure, and how the buttons or inputs might be grouped.

If you have budget constraints per unit for the device beyond “as cheap as possible”, you should also include this in your requirements document. If the budget is $10 and you need a microcontroller, it’s going to limit your choices. The volume this constraint applies to is critical too. If you think your production volume is only going to be 10 units, each component in the device is going to be significantly more expensive to purchase than if you are making 1000 units at a time.

If the device has firmware or software, these should be detailed as well. You might feel this is something you can leave until a later time, but by adding it now, you might find you need an extra button, LED, or connector, which can be a lot harder to add in later.

Determining Regulatory Requirements

If the device you are creating will be offered for sale, now is a good time to look into what certifications it might require. If you are selling a device with electronics in it, you will need to have it certified for compliance with regulations no matter how many you are going to sell. Functionality such as radio communications, battery charging, or AC power all require compliance with regulations. The markets in which you are going to offer your device for sale will also determine which regulations you need to comply with. I examine regulatory requirements early on, as these requirements coupled with the sales volume may heavily influence component choices. 

For example, if I’m building a device that will talk to a phone over bluetooth, but I’m only going to build 100 of them, I will be using a pre-certified radio module despite the higher cost and additional board space compared to using a bluetooth IC. This is because the cost of certifying the device as compliant with intentional radiator regulations doesn’t make sense for the volume of devices I’m building. Likewise, if I have a small volume, I might choose not to build charging circuitry into a battery powered device because the safety testing for a charging circuit is too expensive.

Choosing Parts

Now that I have my requirements, I’ll start another document where I choose high level components based on the required functionality. This is one of the parts I enjoy the most, digging through supplier websites to find all the possible parts that could meet my requirements, then digging through datasheets to determine the most optimal one among them. I’m sure some people loathe this step, but I get real satisfaction out of it. The parts we’re interested in are very high level blocks, not each individual capacitor or resistor.

As an example, if I am building a wireless temperature sensor, you might have the following blocks based on your requirements:

  • Microcontroller to take readings and log them
  • Memory for storing readings if the wireless link is down
  • Real-time clock to determine when a reading was taken
  • Wireless device to communicate readings
  • Battery
  • Voltage regulator
  • Temperature sensor
  • Humidity sensor

Some of these requirements could possibly be put together for a single device to take care of. Many ARM controllers have built-in real-time clocks that are as good as external ICs for example. Digital temperature sensors often only cost a little more with a humidity sensor built-in as well.

Because I know from our requirements that this device will be battery-powered, I can make good choices for low power components with low quiescent currents. I’d probably be looking at a microcontroller which has the deepest, lowest power sleep cycle if the requirements said this would be installed remotely and be running on primary batteries rather than something that gets charged every day. If I had more power to play with, I might be more inclined to look at an RF system on chip (SoC) that integrates the wireless unit and the microcontroller together. Depending on the radio frequency required, I might still do that. This is where the requirements document really comes into play – if the radio was a sub-1GHz unit, I know I would be going straight for an RF SoC from Silicon Labs in their Gecko series. If it needed to be WiFi, I’d probably go for an SiLabs Gecko microcontroller and a separate WiFi radio which I can switch off when I don’t need it. If the power wasn’t a problem, and this was to be a WiFi device that was always plugged in, I would likely be looking at an ESP32 RF SoC instead.

Because I have a requirements document, I can start in the relevant category of components on my preferred supplier’s website and start filtering down specifications that are most critical to my requirements until I have a very shortlist. After looking through the datasheets for parts in this shortlist, I can create an even shorter list with just a couple of highly relevant options.

Creating a High-Level Bill of Materials

It might seem too early to build a bill of materials, since I haven’t even started on the schematic yet, but this is not a BOM you would manufacture from. We’re simply looking at our part selections from above, so we can check our major components and connectors are going to fit within our budget. By making a very simple spreadsheet with each of our most likely candidates for each component, we can fill in pricing data at different volumes. This is when I typically go to a website such as Octopart and make sure the component I want to use is available in volumes at distributors that will allow me to make enough boards. If I know that the first run of boards is likely to be for 1000 devices, but globally, there are only 261 of that part at suppliers, it’s probably a poor choice of component. By using a price comparison website this early on, I can also check to ensure that the cheapest supplier has sufficient stock. By checking each component on the shortlist against stock and pricing comparisons, we can narrow our selection down to a single component that makes it to our ‘bill of materials’. 

This high-level bill of materials allows you to give stakeholders in the project a ballpark idea of how much the device will cost early on. This can really help keep expectations in check, and ensure everyone is on the same page as far as the budget goes.

Prototyping

Now that I have a pretty good idea of which parts to use, it’s time to order some breakout boards, or build them if they do not exist.

Despite the fact I just ‘committed’ to a component in our high-level bill of materials, I’ll typically prototype each component in my shortlist. Why you might ask? Well, specifications lie or might be lacking some detail. In a previous project, I committed to a specific radio module for communications because its datasheet made claims of a certain bitrate over the air. On that project, we ended up testing over ten radio modules to find one that could actually meet our requirements for data transfer, despite what the specifications in the datasheet claimed. If you’re working with a very tight power budget, it can be hard to understand from a datasheet how much power a device will consume in the real world. Not to mention, a table of minimum/typical and maximum values can be quite broad, so testing each device in your specific use case can quickly lead to selecting one component over another due to its power usage. In another project I worked on, I tried five different microcontrollers to determine their current draw in sleep. While some could get to incredibly low sleep values on paper, from a programming point of view, this was very tedious and difficult to achieve and required a lot of code. This made them a risk not worth taking. I ended up going with the SiLabs Gecko mentioned previously, because it was so easy to get it in and out of a very low power sleep mode that exceeded our requirements using only needed one line of code, rather than over a hundred for some others.

It pays off to prototype each major component. Even the components you expect to be a very straightforward choice might turn out to be less than optimal once you start talking to it with a microcontroller. If you are not building a high volume of devices, a slightly more expensive and perhaps less ‘perfect’ choice might have a nice library for your microcontroller, where the optimal choice does not. Being able to use someone else’s proven code to talk to that device could save sufficient time to justify using it over your optimal choice.

This prototyping stage can save you a significant amount of pain down the road if you find out that the component you chose to implement the design with can’t do what you expect it to be based on the datasheet, or that it is very difficult to make it do what the datasheet claims outside a lab. The small investment in time upfront to test your choices may save you days of work revising your design later on.

Writing Code

Having followed this guide,  you should now have breakout boards for each major component in your project, allowing you to build it on a breadboard and start developing code. I moved into electronics from a software development background because I was getting bored of software, so I’ll admit I am always itching to get to schematic capture and PCB layout now that I know which parts I’m going to use. Every time I do, however, it comes back to bite me. Get at least the rudiments of your code worked out on a breadboard or some other configuration that allows you to make changes as needed before committing to a circuit board. I’ve jumped the gun on numerous board spins, moving straight to a PCB only to find I need some additional hardware feature to optimize the firmware, or that perhaps the pin on a microcontroller has some caveat to its function, buried away in the manual, that means I can’t do what I wanted to with it. 

Simulation

If you have analog electronics or logic components beyond a microcontroller on the board, it can pay to quickly build the circuit in a basic SPICE simulator to check that your calculated values function as you expect. Likewise, with logic components, it’s worth making sure the circuit functions as you expect, before you commit to a circuit board only to find you goofed and swapped two inputs and only found out by testing a finished prototype with your oscilloscope.

Schematic Capture and Board Layout

Now that you’ve built your requirements document, chosen parts, and tested them both individually and as part of your entire project, you can enjoy building up the schematic and laying out the board. You’ve put in the effort to get to this point, and you can be fairly certain that the board you build will meet your or your client’s specifications at this point, and that this first revision will have a pretty good chance of working correctly right after assembly. If it doesn’t work, it should be fairly easy to track down the issue and fix the problem, as you have your breadboard to refer back to, allowing you to compare specific points of the schematic with an oscilloscope or logic analyzer to find the fault, and add little wires to the board to fix your mistakes. You probably won’t need to go and make major changes to components after finding them inadequate for the task, as you would if you had skipped the testing.

It might seem a little over the top, a waste of time, or a waste of money to go through all these steps even for very basic devices, but experienced engineers will know that it pays off in the end. The additional effort and seemingly slow progress early on make the rest of the process both much faster and much more risk-free.

I’m a big fan of reducing risk when it comes to design. This doesn’t necessarily mean simplifying the project to remove complexity, or taking the easy route, but rather means exploring complexities or challenges prior to committing to hardware. If you are a beginner just stepping into the world of developing your own hardware, you are likely to consider any circuit board to be a high risk until you have acquired more experience. If you are a seasoned professional, the threshold for high-risk designs is likely significantly elevated, and will allow you to prototype larger blocks of a project at a time, though proper documentation of your requirements would be every bit as indispensable.

See what is new in Upverter or contact us for more information if you want to learn more about the capabilities of browser-based design and product development. Or sign-up for our service today.

How to Manage a Successful Crowdfunding Campaign

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If you have played your cards right with marketing and campaign content, you have blasted past your funding goal and should be excited to move onto the next step. You have already put a significant share of work into the project this far, but now it’s time for the real work to start!

Receiving Funds

Depending on the platform(s) you went with, you can expect to receive the funds into your account anywhere from two days to two weeks from the conclusion of the campaign period. This is a really exciting step! The funds getting to your account are going to be less than your funding total due to platform fees, payment processing fees, and some customer’s cards declining the transaction. We’ve mentioned these in previous articles and your funding goal was set to accommodate this difference.

Product Certification

The first thing you’ll want to do after celebrating that the funds have arrived is to have your first set of ‘final’ boards manufactured if you haven’t already done so. Send these right off to the certification lab before doing any further production to avoid any possible complications and issues. If you have followed best practices for EMC, and your prototypes have performed well during pre-compliance testing, there shouldn’t be any issues. Your lab should be able to certify your product globally (except for in a couple of countries that require in-country testing).

upverter-certifed

EMC and electrical safety testing are not optional, but rather a mandatory legal requirement to sell your product. If you are shipping products into the USA, Canada, Europe or Australia, there is a risk that customs will withhold the shipment(s) until certification documents can be produced. This is a more significant risk if you are sending a bulk shipment of the product to a fulfillment facility or distributor/retailer. Fines for marketing/selling an uncertified product can be hundreds of thousands of dollars, making it cheaper to go through certification before you start mass production!

Mass Production

Once your product has passed certification testing, you can prompt your contract manufacturer to build the full production run. If they are doing a full box build for you, then you can sit back and wait. Otherwise, it’s a great time to start preparing your workspace to receive the product for final testing, programming, and packaging.

You’ll want to order packaging and shipping supplies. If you’re fulfilling orders yourself rather than relying on a third-party service, you’ll want to make sure you have a label printer and a good quality laser printer if you have a large order volume. While these printers are more costly upfront than a cheap home or small office printer, the cost per page they provide is significantly lower. When you need to print 3 invoices plus a packing list for every international order, page counts rise very rapidly and taking your printing costs down to 2.5c per page from around 25c for an inkjet or budget laser printer can give you an immediate return on your investment. 

upverter-packaging

I’ll leave this section at that, as manufacturing your product is likely the part of the process for which you have the most experience and knowledge!

Fulfilling Orders

If you only have a few hundred orders, it might be easier to fulfill the orders yourself, paying yourself or your staff the labor, rather than paying a fulfillment center to take care of it for you. Beyond several hundred orders, a fulfillment center that is both used to and equipped to deal with that volume of shipments is almost certainly going to be your most viable option. If you have a significant quantity of orders in another country, it may be cheaper to ship a large box or pallet of items to a fulfillment center in that country, and delegate distribution to them, than it is to ship directly to each customer.

If you’re using Crowd Supply for your project, they will take care of the shipping for you at a reasonably small charge per shipment. If your contract manufacturer is doing a box build and full testing, Crowd Supply can receive that delivery and fulfill all your orders for you. You can also do it yourself or use any other fulfillment provider.

If you are using IndieGoGo or Kickstarter, the real challenge is figuring out what to send to each customer. If you have some experience with databases or are willing to learn, importing the CSV data from your campaign into a simple database like Microsoft Access or OpenOffice Base can save you an enormous amount of time. Getting all your orders into a database allows you to use views to massage the data into a more usable format. Additionally, reporting functionality built into the database gives you an easy way to generate packing lists and customs invoices. Using views can also put the data into a format expected by your shipping website. It’s very satisfying when you go from entering the shipping details for every order into a shipping website manually to uploading a CSV file from your database and purchasing a hundred labels at a time. As a comparison, shipping 30 parcels would take me around four hours using a shipping website (including weighing orders and customs paperwork) as compared to around fifteen minutes to do the same job with a database export.

upverter-order-management

If you are not experienced with databases, don’t want to hire a freelancer who is, and don’t want to dive into the deep end with them, then data management platforms like BackerKit can help you out if you used Kickstarter. Keep in mind, however, that they will take a percentage of your total funding for that convenience.

Status Updates

Frequent updates to your campaign aren’t just a nuisance the crowdfunding platforms force onto you, but rather a great way to show off what you’ve been working on. Post photos of updated prototypes, your visit to the certification lab as you do your pre-certification work, first articles from the contract manufacturer, and other production progress your customers may find interesting. By showing progress, you keep the hype going as well as help relieve the nervousness of backers who want to be sure they’ll get their product.

If you have the editing skills and feel comfortable in front of a camera, posting video updates can also be very rewarding for your backers, and make them feel more involved in the whole process.

upverter-new-and-improved

These updates are not just to keep the backers happy, but also to help build hype for the post-campaign availability of your product, allowing you to continue making sales even after your campaign has concluded. When making these posts, keep in mind that future customers will be looking at them and enjoying the journey, perhaps years into the future. Topping it off, being able to show progress, challenges, and triumphs in this form can help your future campaigns as well.

Future Sales

Now that you’ve successfully delivered the product to the people who pre-ordered from your campaign, you can start selling directly. Hopefully, you manufactured a few extra units allowing you to have some stock ready and prepared for sale at full price. If you are a new company and don’t have an existing sales channel or website, the decisions you make now can stick with you for several years, mainly because it can be arduous, time-consuming, and expensive to change your eCommerce system once you’ve started using it.

If you used Crowd Supply for your campaign, you could continue selling through their platform and having them ship your product. I had not intended to include this in the article initially, but looking at buying a Software Defined Radio transceiver from Lime Microsystems , I can see that this is a viable option that appears to be working well for them. I’m not sure how this would work if you wanted to release small add-on products, extra cables, or third-party products on your store, however, if you only plan to sell your main product(s), this can be a great way to keep utilizing the marketing links pointing at your campaign.

If you run a small hobby business or are targeting hobbyists, a website like Tindie could be an easy route to online sales as you work towards making sales from your website. This will also give you an additional sales channel once your website can accept sales. If you haven’t heard of Tindie, it’s like Etsy for electronics and geek goods. 

Amazon, eBay, Facebook Store, and other sales channels can increase your sales, but the fees and percentages they take can be fairly steep if you didn’t build much margin into your product. That being said, they do have massive customer bases and may offer you significant sales opportunities compared to selling directly through your website.

Rather than, or in addition to, utilizing an online marketplace, you might want to sell directly to your customers from your website. There are two main ways to approach this: using a hosted eCommerce system (Software as a Service – SaaS) or hosting your own webstore.

upverter-world

The major Software as a Service (SaaS) platforms are Shopify, BigCommerce, BigCartel, and Volusion. Wix and Squarespace are website building platforms that also offer some eCommerce functionality. They all charge a (sometimes hefty) monthly fee and can come with some severe limitations, which can often be overcome by using plugins that cost you monthly. My experience using SaaS has been an expensive one, the base package of $20-$30 a month can quickly balloon out to $300-$500 a month with just a few additions like some marketing, calculated shipping, product customization, and other such plugins. Using a SaaS eCommerce package sounds like a cheap and easy means to get started with eCommerce, but unless you don’t have the skills to host or interest in hosting your own system, it is likely to either cost you a relatively large amount of money or leave you lacking basic features. Ten years ago, eCommerce systems were all about how many features they could pack in. In comparison, today’s systems seem to be about how few features they can get away with, and how well they can charge you extra for even the most basic functionality, like calculating shipping fees at checkout or printing a packing list. There are some significant advantages of using a SaaS system though. For example, they take care of security, compliance, and scale to large volumes of traffic very well.

If you still want to have your own eCommerce system and are unwilling to pay a hefty premium for someone else to take care of it for you, it’s not overly difficult to set up your own system reasonably cheaply. There’s a wide range of commercial, open-source and “open source” platforms available which you can host yourself. I put the second open-source above in quotes because they are commercial ventures masquerading as open-source software using a freemium model. Many of these options also include a hosted option for the software, typically at a much cheaper price than that of the big SaaS packages. Like SaaS options, they offer a bare-bones webstore package and require you to pay for add-ons that give you some of the most basic features in an eCommerce store (like calculated shipping or even just a weight/destination table priced shipping option in the checkout).

My preferred package for eCommerce is nopCommerce , which is an open-source enterprise-grade eCommerce system that is free (you can pay to remove the ‘powered by’ message) and extremely well featured.  It runs on ASP.NET, so does require windows hosting which can be a little more expensive than Linux hosting, yet it’s fairly easy to set up and configure and has a good community behind it for support. There are paid add-ons and themes, but they are relatively cheap and one-off payments. I haven’t managed to find another eCommerce package with quite as many features as nopCommerce has out of the box.

There are plenty of other popular open-source websites available including Magento, WooCommerce, PrestaShop, OpenCart and many others. These can require quite a bit of extra setup work over the SaaS options, but after a year, you could be looking at significant cost savings.

Thank you for following along with this series on using crowdfunding platforms to launch your product. I hope it’s the start of an epic journey toward a product launch success for you. Crowdfunding, and dealing with the volume of orders you receive all at once can be daunting but it can also be an incredibly exciting experience. There are not too many other methods available to generate as much interest in your product or grow your business as rapidly as crowdfunding offers. The opportunities for a cash-strapped startup or someone wanting to run their ‘side business’ full time are just as big as for a large company looking to gain extra marketing reach and make a big impact. In the end, if you want to boil this series down to its essence, I feel the key point to take away here is that planning and marketing are what will make your campaign successful. With good planning, you can respond to events and unexpected circumstances rather than just reacting. Your project will be more likely to stay on track and on budget. Having well-planned marketing will drive interest and traffic to your campaign making it a huge success. Something I haven’t mentioned in the series but is just as important as everything else: Don’t forget to have fun, enjoy the experience, and make sure you take some time for yourself and family. It’s very easy for a campaign to become all-encompassing in your life leaving you working long hours and missing out on enjoying the experience.

If you haven’t read the first article in this series and want to learn more about crowdfunding in general, start here to read the whole series. Or sign-up for our service, see what is new with Upverter or contact us for more information if you want to learn more about the capabilities of browser-based design and product development.