How to Price your HW Product (4/5)

Part 4 – NRE’s: The Sneaky Costs.

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If you’re building a HW product, you’ve inevitably wondered:

  1. How much can I sell it for?
  2. How much money can I make?

In Part 4 of this series, Alan Povall from Product Nimbus breaks down NRE costs.  These are often overlooked and can be surprising.  Take a read and leave your comments below!

Part 1 – The physical product (the stuff you hold in your hands)

Part 2 – Manufacturing and testing (making the stuff)

Part 3 – Packaging and Shipping (sending the stuff)

Part 4 – NREs (hidden costs that can sneak up on you)

Part 5 – Profit (everyone’s favourite!)

NRE Amortization:

Here’s one I love because so many people overlook it. NREs (Non-Recurring Engineering / Expense) usually come from four main places:

Design & development costs:

Electronics, software, industrial design, mechanical tests, IP, prototypes, user research, the works. Everything it cost you (or will cost you) to get a fully manufacturable design, but isn’t part of the physical per-unit cost itself.


Manufacturing set up:

Essentially the cost to get everything up and running for manufacturing, which is typically a flat fee from the manufacturer (depending on how well organized you are). It includes reviewing design files (if you have a good CM), setting up pick & place machines, getting stencils made and more. Typically put this value at $3,000 – $5,000 for a Western manufacturer, although it depends on the agreed upon conditions (e.g. it could be rolled it into the per-unit cost and tied to order volumes). There is often also a smaller per-batch set up fee (to get SMT reels loaded, stencils ready, AOI files loaded, etc).

Certifications:

FCC, UL, CE, FDA, Ex, etc all add up and vary depending on your product as well as the category it falls under, whether it is designated as a medical device, has RF transmitting capabilities and more. Standard certifications are in the $10k – 20k range if you do them right the first time. If you use pre-approved parts (or go through some of the Asian labs), that cost can be as low as $1,000. Failing the tests and having to resubmit can drive up cost, depending on the certification being pursued.  It’s a good idea to start discussions with a certification lab once you have a prototype so you can catch early problems.

Enclosure production cost:

If you are using 3D printing for small volume runs, then one-off costs are less of an issue. However if you are using injection moulding for instance, then the cost of having the mould created can be significant and needs to be taken into account. Depending on the actual mould complexity and where you get them made, these can range anywhere from $3,000 to $12,000 (or more).

Test Fixtures:

You may need some sort of test fixture in order to carry out functional tests to ensure that the electronics (and mechanical bits) of your product are working before putting everything into a box to ship. These can range from simple manually operated fixtures which take a few hundred dollars (or less) to create, through to complex ATEs (Automated Test Equipment) which are essentially a full product in their own right. ATEs can range anywhere from $15,000 – $50,000 (yes, really), depending, yet again on product complexity. The more complex a product is the longer manual testing will take, which means that as volume increases there will be a crossover point where manual labour becomes more expensive than creating and using an ATE.

The Key to Remember:

These costs need to be recouped throughout production (preferably sooner rather than later), and so need to be split across the anticipated production volumes. If your total development, manufacturing, enclosure and test fixture NREs are $250,000 (hypothetically) and your anticipated annual volume is 10,000 units, the amortized NRE cost as a per unit cost would be $25 per unit ($250,000 ÷ 10,000) on top of the other per unit manufacturing costs we’ve mentioned already. Naturally you could spread this over 2 or even 3 years (although that would be pushing it a bit), which would reduce the per unit cost to $12.5 and $8.33 respectively, depending on the accuracy of your sales projections (pro tip: they don’t climb exponentially).

Alan Povall is the Founder of Product Nimbus, which provides business resources for hardware tech start ups. Alan’s been involved with heavily in product development for over 7 years as part of an international HW design consultancy. He now works with aspiring entrepreneurs, start ups and even the odd charity to get their product ideas off paper and into the wild.

Upverter Workshop – Bluetooth Throwie

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Here’s some information that should be of some help during the Upverter Workshop.

1: Setting up your account

2: Forking the Workshop Design

After logging in, check the link below. You’ll find the BTLE design we’ll be working with. In the right side bar labelled ‘issues’, there are some tips on what to do.

https://upverter.com/pch/5cba5ae5ee52b315/Waterloo-Hackathon-Weekend—Upverter-Workshop/

3: Building your design. 

When searching for modules in the Parts Library, make sure to search for “CC2541 under the ‘modules’ tab. You’ll find the three tools you’ll need for the workshop:  CC2541 Power Supply | CC2541 Bluetooth LE | CC2541 Accelerometer

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4: Connecting the Circuit.

Okay. So you’ve finished inserting your modules. Now you’ve got to connect them!

Under the PCB Layout section, select the copper, line up your parts correctly, and that’s all! You’ve just created a lightweight bluetooth device!

Here’s a Link to the Slideshow.

Follow along the workshop, and call us over if you need anything.

How to Price your HW Product (3/5)

Part 3 – Packaging & Shipping

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If you’re building a HW product, you’ve inevitably wondered:

  1. How much can I sell it for?
  2. How much money can I make?

In Part 3 of this series, Alan Povall from Product Nimbus explains why hardware startups shouldn’t worry about having packaging that’s as sexy as the iPhone.

How important are packaging and shipping?

Part 1 – The physical product (the stuff you hold in your hands)

Part 2 – Manufacturing and testing (making the stuff)

Part 3 – Packaging and Shipping (sending the stuff)

Part 4 – NREs (hidden costs that can sneak up on you)

Part 5 – Profit (everyone’s favourite!)

Packaging:

Packaging costs also vary widely depending on the quality of packing you want to wrap your shiny product in. It’s all the rage these days to go for ultra high quality packing design and materials to create a luxurious ‘unboxing’ experience. It’s my personal opinion that as a start up, your money should be spent on:

  1. Validating the living heck out of your market
  2. Creating a product experience so sublime that melts your customers brains into goo
  3. Finding the perfect manufacturing partner
  4. Promoting your product until you’re blue in the face

As you can tell from the above list, designing a 15 piece interlocking, shiny double bonded UV resistant cardboard portmanteau is not on the list. I’m not saying shouldn’t package your product beautifully (if you can do it for the right price), but I think you need to think very carefully about where your money goes. High end packaging can be anywhere from $5 – $20 per unit. Basic but respectable packing can start at $0.30 – 1.00 per unit.

Shipping:

Shipping costs are another fun variable, which change considerably based on where you are shipping from, your manufacturer’s MoQ and how Just-In-Time your sales model is. In most cases it’s not feasible to use air freight (unless your volumes are still relatively low), which means you’re stuck with a combination of sea and land transport. It’s an aspect that’s often overlooked with the Asian manufacturers, as they have large MoQs (up to 3,000 – 5,000), which need to be shipped to USA / Europe in most cases (not to mention port clearance fees), weeks if not months ahead of when you think you’ll actually need the stock.

If you know the weight, dimensions and MoQ your product to be made, you can phone around and get some shipping / clearance fee estimates from shipping companies.


Alan Povall is the Founder of Product Nimbus, which provides business resources for hardware tech start ups. Alan’s been involved with heavily in product development for over 7 years as part of an international HW design consultancy. He now works with aspiring entrepreneurs, start ups and even the odd charity to get their product ideas off paper and into the wild.

How to Price your HW Product (2/5)

Part 2 – Manufacturing, Testing, & Yield! Oh My!

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If you’re building a HW product, you’ve inevitably wondered:

  1. How much can I sell it for?
  2. How much money can I make?

In part-2 of this 5-part series, Alan Povall from Product Nimbus guides us through the sometimes daunting question:

How do manufacturing and testing affect my cost?

Part 1 – The physical product (the stuff you hold in your hands)

Part 2 – Manufacturing and testing (making the stuff)

Part 3 – Packaging and Shipping (sending the stuff)

Part 4 – NREs (hidden costs that can sneak up on you)

Part 5 – Profit (everyone’s favourite!)

Assembly & Functional Testing:

Assembly and functional testing cost is largely dependent on the assembly complexity of the product, how well DFM (design for manufacturing) principles have been applied.  The type of testing is impactful as well: automated testing equipment (ATE, more on this below) or manual labour testing. If you haven’t had a chance to talk to a CM yet and got a quote, a rough rule of thumb of 4 – 8% of hardware cost can be used to estimate this,

Pre-programming:

Does your product have a flash memory, EEPROM, or some other programmable device that needs to be pre-programmed?  Be sure to include the costs of this.  Major parts distributors offer programming services and can take care of this for you and the part can just be soldered onto the PCB during assembly.  Otherwise your CM will have to program the part (either before or after assembly) and you’ll have to help with the details.

Highly Accelerated Stress Screening (HASS):

HASS is essentially a post assembly stress testing method designed to incite infant mortality failure of components, through all-axis vibration and rapid thermal cycling. HASS testing is carried out so that failures happen in the manufacturing environment (where they can be fixed), instead of in the field where either a recall, replacement, or in-field repair would be necessary.

The investment to implement HASS testing varies from product to product, but is generally a function of complexity (and therefore cost), so it’s best to check with your CM (also to make sure they offer it – if they don’t, you can also do it yourself, but you’ll have to put a test regime in place). A useful rule of thumb is to allocate 2 – 4% of your total hardware costs.

Manufacturing Yield:

Manufacturing is not a perfect process and you’ll always get a small number of product which don’t work when coming off of the production line. Tombstoning, insufficient wetting, bridging (especially if doing reflow soldering), poor manufacturing practices and more can cause issues. Sometimes the heat profiles of automated soldering equipment induce infant mortality in components, even prior to HASS tests.

In reality yield failure can run anywhere from 0.5% through to 5% (even up to 10% in extreme cases), and depends on a variety of factors such as:

  • Quality of components
  • Number of components placed
  • Footprint complexity of components placed (BGA vs. SOIC8 vs. 0802 resistors)
  • Solder quality and type (lead vs lead free)
  • Quality of manufacturing processes & systems in place

A good manufacturing process should provide a high yield rate (e.g. a low failure rate), but this can vary significantly from CM to CM. As a rule of thumb, I’ve found 2 – 3% of hardware cost to be a reasonable estimate. As your own processes mature, this number should drop to ≤1%.

Reliability / In-Field Failure Rates:

No product will be without failures, regardless of how well-designed or test process. Strong reliability engineering practices during design phases and HASS during production can greatly decrease the probability of in-field failures, but never completely eliminate them.

As such it’s important to factor the probability of failure into the pricing model, but it can be difficult to do so as, again, there are a great number of variables affecting reliability. As a general rule of thumb a failure rate of 2 – 5% for electronics would be doing fairly well and therefore 2 – 5% of HW costs is a good range to allocate to your final unit pricing until you have empirical data to make a more informed decision.

Alan Povall is the Founder of Product Nimbus, which provides business resources for hardware tech start ups. Alan’s been involved with heavily in product development for over 7 years as part of an international HW design consultancy. He now works with aspiring entrepreneurs, start ups and even the odd charity to get their product ideas off paper and into the wild.

How to Price your HW Product (1/5)

Part 1The Physical Product

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If you’re building a HW product, you’ve inevitably wondered:

  1. How much can I sell it for?
  2. How much money can I make?

In part-1 of this 5-part series, Alan Povall from Product Nimbus guides us through the sometimes daunting question:

How do manufacturing and testing affect my cost?

Part 1 – The physical product (the stuff you hold in your hands)

Part 2 – Manufacturing and testing (making the stuff)

Part 3 – Packaging and Shipping (sending the stuff)

Part 4 – NREs (hidden costs that can sneak up on you)

Part 5 – Profit (everyone’s favourite!)

Electronics & PCB:

Once you’ve designed your PCB you should have a fairly good idea of what is going into your product, especially at low volume through buying components from distributors like RS, Element14, and Digikey. These low volume costs form the basis of this pricing model.

There are two main points worth noting here:

  1. 70 – 90% of your product cost will come from 20 – 40% of components. This means that if you haven’t fully finalized your design yet, don’t lose sleep over trying to find a source for every single component (at least not yet), especially for sundry items like resistors and capacitors (that don’t have any special requirements). You will have a handful of core, critical components which need to be carefully chosen to keep cost low and ensure long term supply (e.g. don’t choose something that you know is going to go end of life in a year or two).
  2. The mark ups that suppliers (such as RS, Element14, Digikey, etc) apply to components is similar to that of contract manufacturers (CM), so the price breaks (discounts at volume) that you receive from both (up until around the 10,000 mark at least) are roughly equivalent.

Pricing:

From my experience the price breaks you can expect relative to one-off pricing for electronic components are:

  • 100 off (15 – 25% discount from one-off pricing)
  • 1,000 off (30 – 50% discount from one-off pricing)

Once you get to 10,000 units or more of a specific component, you get into quote territory. The actual price breaks over one-off volume vary considerably dependent on the component type and are really dependent on how well integrated a contract manufacturer’s supply chain is with its own suppliers.

Whether you are able to use a contract manufacturer’s preferred parts also makes a considerable difference to your final BOM price (hence why it’s important to get talking to your CM as soon as you’ve settled on a first pass design, as they’ll make some recommendations for changes which will need to be reflected in your design).

Enclosure:

The next item to consider is the per-unit cost of the enclosure. Enclosure costs vary significantly based on a number of factors, such as:

  • Whether it is an off-the-shelf or custom designed enclosure
  • Manufacturing technique (3D printing, injection moulding, rotational moulding, etc)
  • Base material (aluminium, ABS plastic, etc)
  • Material additives (UV stabilisers, pigments, anodising, etc)
  • Enclosure complexity (physical design as well as number of parts to be assembled)
  • Production volume

Given the large number of variables it is difficult to point to exact price breaks, except saying that they can be significant (e.g. a small, 10 off ABS injection moulded cases could be $3 – $5 each, whereas at volumes of 40,000 could be as cheap as 17c each).

Check out Part 2 where we dive into Manufacturing, Testing, and Yields!

Alan Povall is the Founder of Product Nimbus, which provides business resources for hardware tech start ups. Alan’s been involved with heavily in product development for over 7 years as part of an international HW design consultancy. He now works with aspiring entrepreneurs, start ups and even the odd charity to get their product ideas off paper and into the wild.

Lesson #10: How to be a Part Picking Wizard

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Now that you have a block diagram of your hardware and have built a proof-of-concept prototype using a development board (or two or three), it’s time to take what you’ve learned and start choosing parts for your custom hardware design.The ultimate goal of this step is to discover the best components to implement each block in your block diagram while making sure that all your components will interoperate with each other.

But there are millions of chips out there.  How do you go about finding the right one?  One way to do it would be to experiment with the several search engines that exist to help with this task.  But the reality of many parts search engines today is that they’re not comprehensive enough and I often find out later that I’ve missed a whole family of parts that I should have considered.

So instead, I am going to outline the most reliable method I’ve found over the years, along with some tips and tricks to turn you into a part picking wizard!

First, what’s an ideal part?

An ideal part can be loosely defined as one that:

  • Performs the required function at the required performance and quality
  • Has an interface that is compatible with the other relevant components in the design (ie: uses the same protocol, runs at the same frequency, same data width, etc.)
  • Has power requirements (ie: voltage and current) that can be met by the power system and are similar to the power requirements of other components in the design (ie: runs on the same voltage)
  • Has a small package and is conducive to a clean layout
  • Is in stock and widely available with acceptable lead times
  • Is low cost in accordance with your budget

Keep all these criteria in mind during your part selection process so that you end up with parts that are not only good for your project but are also in stock and cost-efficient for your budget. Let’s get started!

1. Cast a WIDE net and find all your vendors

The first, most basic step would be to find all your vendors. For a given kind of part (ie: a BluetoothLE chip, LED driver, LiPo battery charger), find all the companies that play in that space.  A great way to do this is through a combination of Google and distributor websites (like Digikey, Avnet, Arrow, Newark, Mouser, etc.).  Simply search for the kind of part you’re looking for and make a note of all the vendors that manufacture components in that area.

How I’ve learned this: On a few past designs, I was well into the design process and a colleague would later suggest a really great part from a vendor I hadn’t considered.  It was sometimes too late or a big pain to switch and I felt silly that I missed it in my initial search.  This happened because I wasn’t rigorous in enumerating all the vendors that make devices in a given domain.

2. Generate a list of part candidates

Visit each vendor’s website and use their parametric search to find potential candidates.  Be aware that these parametric searches are often missing many important parameters, resulting in a search that’s too broad.  From the results, make a note of parts that look like they might work based on their titles, descriptions, and parameters.  Your list may consist of anywhere from 5 to 50 parts depending on the type of part. That may sound daunting, but don’t worry: the list will shrink fast during the next step.

How I’ve learned this:  On some prior designs, I ended up finding out too late that my chosen vendor had other parts in the family that were an even better fit.  So these days I very much prefer to use the vendor website rather than some other parts search engine because I can trust that their list of parts is up-to-date and comprehensive.

Tip: One shortcut I often use to narrow down the list is to limit my search to parts that are currently in stock on distributor websites. This works if I know I need to build prototypes ASAP, or if I can’t afford to wait a few weeks for lead times and am okay with potentially spending more money on parts. Oftentimes, my search results from Step 1 on the distributor website will yield really good candidates that are in-stock, leading me to just pick the first one that’s close to “ideal”.

3. Trim to a shortlist

Quickly visit the product page of each part and skim through its feature list, while keeping the “ideal criteria” in mind to see if there are any glaring things that disqualify this part.  You’ll find them fast.  Most of the ideal criteria are typically listed in these product pages. This should distill your long list of parts to a qualified shortlist pretty quickly.

4. Do a little–okay, a lot of reading  (it’ll pay off)

At this point, you should have a small list of parts that look like good candidates.  The next step is to read the datasheet of each part to see if it meets your criteria.  Datasheets can be long and everyone hates reading them. It’s tempting to rush through this step but it’s one of the most important stages of the whole process.  Time and time again, I see people making design errors or spending hours on debugging, simply because they didn’t sit down and read the datasheet slowly.  To save time, you can limit your reading to only the sections relevant to judging your ideal criteria.  Every component has some quirks and this is the step where you should learn about them.  Some quirks are not a big deal while others can render your design useless.

How I’ve learned this: I have too many war stories to tell, but here’s one where I lucked out:  I was doing a complex design with a new FPGA family.  FPGA datasheets are 1000+ pages so I got restless and skimmed through the important sections rather than reading them slowly.  We picked this family because it had internal series termination resistors, which meant we didn’t need dozens of these on the PCB.  We were almost finished the schematic design and my colleague luckily discovered a critical detail in the datasheet that this feature only works for I/O levels up to 3.0V.  We were planning to use 3.3V I/O on several high-speed interfaces and not having terminations on the PCB would have been a disaster.  I always remember this incident when I feel resistance to reading datasheets.

Tip: As you read through datasheets, you’ll start noticing the common words and phrases vendors use to describe these parts.  You can go back to Step 1 and reuse these phrases to refine your search string.

5. Iterate: Rinse and repeat

As you learn about available parts, you may discover new constraints.  For example, the candidate parts may only support an interface that your processor doesn’t.  In this case, you have to find a new processor or change your design.  Or you may find an ideal part but its required power rail voltage is different than all the other parts on your board.  Expect to iterate on your entire part search and change other parts of the design to accommodate them.

Bonus tips! 

Outsource your search

There are many people in the hardware ecosystem who can help you find the right part.  Part manufacturers, distributors, and sales reps all employ technical people who work with these parts every day.  Their job is to help you find the right part and they often do a good job about it.  Email or call their sales office, describe your application, and ask them to suggest parts.  This has saved me lots of time and has introduced me to parts I didn’t know about.

How I’ve learned this: I’ve done a few designs with dozens of DC/DC switching regulators and LDOs.  But there are so many vendors in this space, each of which builds hundreds of components that differ only slightly.  Finding the ideal part was always a nightmare.  So I got fed up and tried emailing all the companies I was interested in and asked them to suggest the best part available for my specs.  Within a few days they all sent me detailed reports, came into the office to give presentations, and were overall very helpful.  I’ve used this method ever since.

Use FAEs as technical advisors

If you are working with technology that’s new to you, sometimes you don’t even know what tradeoffs to consider when choosing parts.  You could spend hours reading on the Internet to get familiar with the technology.  But I find there’s a much better and faster way.  Simply find one of the biggest vendors in the space, email/call the sales office, and ask to speak with a Field Applications Engineer (FAE) who specializes in this technology.  They will be happy to speak to you.  Then be honest with her that you don’t know anything and explain what you’re trying to build.  They will start asking you all the questions you should be asking yourself.  You may not have answers in that moment but you’ll learn what’s important to consider.

How I’ve learned this: I recently did a Zigbee design but I had never worked with Zigbee or any similar RF interface.  So rather than spending 30 hours reading about the intricacies of doing a successful Zigbee design, I simply read the Wikipedia article to get familiar with the basics then called a big company that makes Zigbee modules.  They put me in touch with an FAE and I told him what kind of product I was trying to build.  I asked him to explain all the things I should consider when doing a Zigbee design.  By the end of it, I knew what questions I had to answer and felt confident in choosing a module.  That single 45 minute conversation saved me many hours of frustrating research and also gave me a sense of confidence that only comes from talking to an expert who has helped several customers be successful.

Look legit

When reaching out for help it’s important that you look like a legitimate company.  This is because all these people are helping you in the hopes that you buy a chip that they sell.  But they don’t want to waste time if they think you’re a hobbyist working from your garage.  Make sure you have a professional company website or landing page and send emails from your company domain.

Lesson #1: What Type of Hardware Startup Do You Want to Build?
Lesson #2: Exploring Ideas
Lesson #3: Customer Discovery
Lesson #4: The Cardboard Prototype
Lesson #5: The Hardware Lifecycle
Lesson #6: Setting Up Your Business
Lesson #7: Division of Labor
Lesson #8: The Block Diagram
Lesson #9: The Development Board Prototype

Lesson #9: The Development Board Prototype

Lesson 9. The development prototype

Last week, we went over the steps to drawing a detailed block diagram of your product. You’ve hopefully gained a clearer idea of how the hardware should be architected and understand the fundamental organization of how your major functional components interrelate with one another.

So what’s next? How do you take this visual map of your system and translate it to a physical prototype? Which route causes the least amount of friction?

Today’s lesson will cover how you can take advantage of commodity hardware such as an Arduino or Raspberry Pi to quickly spin up a proof-of-concept prototype. This will serve as the launching point to your custom board and help you choose the parts you’ll need to build it.


What is a development board?

Arduino, RaspberryPi, BeagleBone, TI LaunchPad. You’ve no doubt come across one of these popular single-board computers before. Development boards are readily-available, off-the-shelf boards that support a very general design that’s easily hackable. More often than not, they feature some kind of processing with a batch of common peripherals and friendly connectors to make interacting with the board highly flexible and uncomplicated. Popular development boards are also backed by a large community of developers and expansive code libraries, making the implementation of common functions much easier. In addition to being an excellent tool for learnings the basics of electronics, they are a great way to start developing your product’s first prototype.

The point of this step is to quickly come out of it with a proof-of-concept model of your device. The already-populated boards are a cost-effective way to test-drive multiple components to get a better sense of what parts you’d like to eventually build with. You might find that specific chips don’t behave the way that you had expected, or that there’s simply not enough documentation to make its application easy and pain-free. It’s good to get through these hurdles at this point so that you can efficiently get through the next stages of development.

Given the multi-functional use of most single-board computers, your proof-of-concept prototype may be overkill in terms of available peripherals, components, and I/O, especially if you use multiple boards to wire up your system. This is okay and expected. Quickly building up a prototype like this may even get you to explore other functions that are available to you and get you to think about your product from a variety of functional angles.

How do you choose the right development board?

With the rising popularity in hacking electronics, there’s an overwhelming amount of available development boards with multiple models that each offer different powers, functions, and actions. Selecting the right board largely depends on the purpose and function of your design. Is your product small? Does it require solid processing power? Does it need to communicate with multiple devices? Beyond the hardware, do you want to be working with a board that is supported by a large community of hackers and developers?

The easiest way to eliminate possible choices is to start with a single board computer that matches the processing power that your device requires. Then filter by the interfaces, peripherals, and I/O that you need to support your hardware. Again, you will probably have to connect multiple, off-the-shelf products together to achieve your desired function. Hack together a working prototype that you can fine-tune and develop into your own custom board.

Check out our infographic comparing some of the most popular development boards available on the market today to help you get started!


Development Board Infographic


A quick note on setting up your hardware workspace

Now that you’re starting to get your hands dirty, you’re going to need a well-equipped electronics lab to help you efficiently work on your prototypes. Often times, how your workspace is set up and organized is overlooked, costing you on time and causing unnecessary errors. Be sure to download and read our guide of tools, techniques, and tricks to putting together an effective lab. We like to call it Lab Feng Shui.


Next lesson, we’ll dive right into how to go about picking your parts! Anandh, our Head of Hardware, will explain some of the methods that have worked for him in his 10 years of experience in the industry. Coming next week!


https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1YXjfEg8Ljs1Y5IdwYK38HwyOEUqhKUeCiZ-QSGuOuB0/viewform?embedded=true

If you’re just joining us, spend some time going over our earlier lessons and be right on track for next week!

Lesson #1: What Type of Hardware Startup Do You Want to Build?
Lesson #2: Exploring Ideas
Lesson #3: Customer Discovery
Lesson #4: The Cardboard Prototype
Lesson #5: The Hardware Lifecycle
Lesson #6: Setting Up Your Business
Lesson #7: Division of Labor
Lesson #8: The Block Diagram